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Allergic Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane covering the white part of the eye) due to allergy. Although allergens differ between patients, the most common cause is hay fever.

Astigmatism is a common irregular curvature of the cornea or lens which causes vision to be blurred. It is often treated with glasses or contact lenses. Astigmatism can run in families and often occurs in combination with other refractive problems such as nearsightedness or farsightedness.

Blepharitis is characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margins, and usually causes redness of the eyes and irritation of the eyelids.

Cataracts develop when the eye’s natural crystalline lens is cloudy instead of clear. In about 0.4% of all births, congenital cataracts are found or soon develop.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a DNA virus found in almost everyone, and is usually fought off by the immune system. For people who are immunocompromised by diseases, transplants, or chemotherapy, the virus is not adequately destroyed and can cause damage to the eye and the rest of the body.

Colorblindness is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish.

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), most commonly due to an allergic reaction or an infection (usually bacterial or viral). Conjunctivitis is highly contagious, and those infected,as well as those around them, are encouraged to wash their hands with anti-bacterial soap frequently until treatment is complete.

Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object. These images may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other.

Dry Eye Syndrome (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca) is an eye disease caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Common symptoms include dryness, burning and a sandy-gritty eye irritation that gets worse as the day goes on.

Farsightedness (see Hyperopia below)

Floaters are deposits of various size, shape, consistency, refractive index, and motility within the eye’s normally transparent, colorless, gelatinous mass that fills the space between the lens of the eye and the retina lining the back of the eye.

Hyperopia (Farsightedness) is the inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases the inability to focus on objects at any distance. It is caused by an imperfection in the eye – often when the eyeball is too short or when the lens cannot become round enough.

Keratoconus is a degenerative non-inflammatory disorder of the eye in which structural changes within the cornea cause it to thin and change to a more conical shape than its normal gradual curve.

Macular Holes is a small break in the macula, located in the center of the eye’s light-sensitive tissue called the retina. The macula provides the sharp, central vision we need for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail.

Myopia (Nearsightedness) causes distant objects to appear blurred. It is a refractive defect of the eye in which collimated light produces image focus in front of the retina when accommodation is relaxed.

Nearsightedness (see Myopia above)

Nystagmus, is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) or it can be part of a pathological process. It is characterized by oscillations that may occur in the vertical, horizontal or torsional planes, or in any combination.

Ocular Hypertension is intraocular pressure (IOP) higher than normal in the absence of optic nerve damage or visual field loss. Elevated IOP is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, so those with ocular hypertension are frequently considered to have a greater chance of developing the condition.

Ocular Migraine (Acephalgic Migraine) is a variant of migraine in which the patient may experience aura symptoms such as scintillating scotoma, nausea, photophobia, hemiparesis and other migraine symptoms but does not experience headache.

Photophobia (Light Sensitivity) is usually due to too much light entering the eye, which causes over stimulation of the photoreceptors in the retina and subsequent excessive electric impulses to the optic nerve. This leads to a reflex aversion to light, and discomfort or pain.

Pinguecula is a type of conjunctival degeneration in the eye. It is extremely common and is seen as a yellow-white deposit on the conjunctiva adjacent to the limbus (the junction between the cornea and sclera).

Pink Eye (see Conjunctivitis above)

Ptosis (Drooping Eyelid) is an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid, and is typically addressed through plastic surgery of the eyelid.

Pterygium is a wedge shaped area of fibrosis, that appears to grow into the cornea. It is associated with, and thought to be caused by ultraviolet-light exposure (e.g. sunlight), low humidity, and dust.

Retinal Detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the retina lead to progressive visual loss.

Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. Uveitis requires an immediate thorough examination by an ophthalmologist, along with urgent treatment to control the inflammation.

If you would like further information, please call our St. Petersburg, Florida, pediatric eye care office at 727-767-4393.